“The so-called 'Left-Hand Path' - that of Kaulas, Siddhas and Viras - combines the... Tantric worldview with a doctrine of the Übermensch which would put Nietzsche to shame... The Vira - which is to say: the 'heroic' man of Tantrism - seeks to sever all bonds, to overcome all duality between good and evil, honor and shame, virtue and guilt. Tantrism is the supreme path of the absolute absence of law - of shvecchacarī, a word meaning 'he whose law is his own will'." ― Julius Evola, The Path of Cinnabar.

“It is necessary to have “watchers” at hand who will bear witness to the values of Tradition in ever more uncompromising and firm ways, as the anti-traditional forces grow in strength. Even though these values cannot be achieved, it does not mean that they amount to mere “ideas.” These are measures…. Let people of our time talk about these things with condescension as if they were anachronistic and anti-historical; we know that this is an alibi for their defeat. Let us leave modern men to their “truths” and let us only be concerned about one thing: to keep standing amid a world of ruins.” ― Julius Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World: Politics, Religion, and Social Order in the Kali Yuga.

“We are born into this time and must bravely follow the path to the destined end. There is no other way. Our duty is to hold on to the lost position, without hope, without rescue, like that Roman soldier whose bones were found in front of a door in Pompeii, who died at his post during the eruption of Vesuvius because someone forgot to relieve him. That is greatness. That is what it means to be a thoroughbred. The honorable end is the one that can not be taken from a man.” ― Oswald Spengler, Man and Technics: A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life.

Monday, December 16, 2013

Update: December 2013

Must confess I've been uninspired to "share with the internet community" for some time. My most-updated Internet presence is probably my Facebook account, which I prefer to keep "private" to a small list of under 80 people, which I frequently prune, but I do update the CosmodromiumTumblr account almost daily (albeit mostly re-posts), and much less frequently "Twitter," because "Twitter" is inherently retarded. I generally do not participate in internet "discussions" anymore at all.

I'm generally lax at answering email and have a massive backlog. Rather than respond to each one individually, I've singled out a few recurring questions here (abbreviated sans quotation marks):
  1. Are you going to re-issue Essays in Satanism?
  2. Are you going to write any more on Satanism?
  3. Are you going to put out another book?
    Probably. I have several things that I am working on, but nothing to the point that I would project a completion date, much less a publication date.
  4. Are you affiliated with any particular far-right/pro-Fascist political organization?
    My only political affiliation is with a specific Royal House of Italy, as a friend of the family and occasional consultant on specific issues. I am not aligned with any specific organization or "movement" especially not in the USA where they are invariably ineffectual and comprised of severely defective people.
  5. Do you consider yourself an Evolian?
    Insofar as I would self-apply any label, I would consider myself a Traditionalist in general, and on the few points Evola diverges from the mainstream of "Traditionalist" thought, I am generally in agreement with Evola, although not on all points. Guenon is primary, but I'm an avid reader of Coomaraswamy, Burckhardt, Lings, Schuon, and Whitall Perry, etc. Anything I write in the future will probably be strongly based in this perspective.

The Ritman Library on YouTube

Outstanding series of lectures here: http://www.youtube.com/user/TheRitmanLibrary/videos

My "Kindle"

Several months ago a friend gave me one of these "kindle" devices, mostly because I get free wi-fi and highly mobile internet access helps my immediate work-related needs (I don't use "iphones" or anything like that). Of course actual books are primary for me, but being information-centered, I do have a large collection of "e-books" esp. public domain material that is frequently unavailable in print, via google books, archive.org, and various museum and library archives. Anyway, I mildly amused myself realizing that my "futuristic" technology is mostly used for archaic and anti-modern material:

Fuck Nelson Mandela

Monday, October 7, 2013

Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: Of the Internet

Whosoever therefore thou art that now desireth to study this science, keep silence and constantly conceal within the secret closets of your Religious breast, so holy a determination; for (as Mercury saith) to publish to the knowledge of many a speech throughly filled with so great majesty of the Deity, is a sign of an irreligious spirit; and Divine Plato commanded, that holy and secret mysteries should not be divulged to the people; Pythagoras also and Porphyrius consecrated their followers to a Religious silence; Orpheus also, which a certain terrible authority of Religion did exact an oath of silence, and from those he did initiate to the Ceremonies of holy things: Whence in the verses concerning the holy word he sings,
You, that Admirers are of vertue, stay,
Consider well what I to you shall say.
But you, that sacred laws contemn, prophane?
Away from hence, return no more again.
But thou O
Museus whose mind is high,
Observe my words, and read them with thine eye,
And them within thy sacred breast repone,
And in thy journey, think of God alone
The Author of all things, that cannot dye,
Of whom we shall not treate ---
So in Virgil we read of the Sybill
The goddess comes, hence, hence, all ye prophane,
The Prophet cries, and from her grove refrain.
Hence also in celebrating the holy mysteries of Ceres Eleusine, they only were admitted to be initiated, the cryer proclaiming the prophane vulgar to depart; and in Esdras we read this precept concerning the Cabalisticall secret of the Hebrews, declared in these verses, Thou shalt deliver those books to the wise men of the people, whose hearts thou knowest can comprehend them, and keep those secrets. Therefore the Religious volumes of the Egyptians & those belonging to the secrets of their ceremonies, were made of consecrated paper; in these they did write down leters [letters] which might not easily be known, which they call holy. Macrobius Marcellinus and others say, they were called Hieroglyphics, least perchance the writings of this kind should be known to the prophane, which also Apuleius testifies in these words, saying, The sacrifice being ended, from a secret retyred closet he bringeth forth certain books noted with obscure letters, affording compendious words of the conceived speech, partly by the figures of beasts of this kind, partly by figures full of knots, and crooked in the manner of a wheel & set thick, twining about like vine tendrels, the reading thereby being defended from the curiosity of the prophane; Therefore we shall be worthy scholars of this science, if we be silent and hide those things which are secret in religion, for the promise of silence (as saith Tertullian) is due to Religion; but they which do otherwise are in very great danger, whence Apuleius saith concerning secrets of holy Writs; I would tell it you, if it were lawfull to tell it; you should know it; if it were lawfull to hear it; but both ears and tongue would contract the same guilt of rash curiosity. So we read Theodorus the tragick poet, when he would have referred somethings of the mysteries of the Jews Scripture to a certain fable, was deprived of sight. Theopompus also who began to translate somethings out of the Divine law into the Greek tongue, was presently troubled in mind and spirit, whence afterward earnestly desiring God, wherefore this had happened to him, received an answer in a dream, because he had basely polluted Divine things, by setting them forth in publike [public]. One Numenius also being very curious of hidden things, incurred the displeasure of the Divine powers, because he interpreted the holy mysteries of the goddesse Eleusina and published them for he dreamed that the goddesses of Eleusis stood in a whores habit before the Brothell house, which when he wondred at, they wrathfully answered, that they were by him violently drawn from their modestly and prostituted everywhere to all commers, by which he was admonished, that the Ceremonies of the gods ought not to be divulged. Therefore it hath alwaies been the great care of the Ancients to wrap up the mysteries of God and nature, and hide them with diverse Aenigmaes [enigmas], which law the Indians, Brachmans [Brahmans], Æthiopians, Persians, and Egyptians also observed; hence Mercurius, Orpheus, and all the ancient Poets and Philosophers, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato Aristoxenus, Ammonius, kept them inviolably. Hence Plotinus and Origenes and the other disciples of Ammonius (as Porphyry relates in his book of the education and Discipline of Plotinus) sware, never to set forth the Decrees of their master. And because Plotinus, brake his oath made to Ammonius, and published his mysteries, for the punishment of his transgression, he was consumed (as they say) by the Horrible disease of Lice. Crist also himself, while he lived on earth, spoke after that manner and fashion that only the more intimate disciples should understand the mystery of the word of God, but the other should perceive the parables only: commanding moreover that holy things should not be given to Dogs, nor pearles cast to Swine: Therefore the Prophet saith, I have hid thy words in my heart, that I might not sin against thee. Therefore it is not fit that those secrets which are amongst a few wise men, and communicated by mouth only, should be publikly written. Wherefor you will pardon me, If I pass over in silence many and the chiefest secret mysteries of Ceremonial Magick. I suppose I shal do enough, if I open those things which are necessary to be known, and you by the reading of this book go not away altogether empty of these mysteries; but on that condition let these things be communicated to you, on which Dionysius bound Timothy, that they which perceive these Secrets, would not expose them to the unworthy, but gather them together amongst wise men, and keep them with that reverence that is due to them. Furthermore I would also warne you in the beginning, that even as the divine powers detest publike things and profane, and love secrecy: So every Magical experiment fleeth the publike, seeks to be hid, is strengthened by silence, but is destroyed by publicationm neither doth any compleate effect follow after; all these things suffer losse, when they are poured into prating and incredulous minds; therefore it behoveth a Magicall operator, if he would get fruit from this art, to be secret, and to manifest to none, neither his work nor place, not time, neither his desire nor will, unless either to a master, or partner, or companion, who also ought to be faithfull, believing, silent, and dignified by nature and education: Seeing that even the prating of a companion, his incredulity and unworthiness hindreth and disturbeth the effect in every operation.

-- Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: Of Occult Philosophy, Book III, Chapter ii. Of concealing of those things which are secret in Religion.

Art: Bartolomeo Cesi, Study for Allegory of Faith and Silence, 1590/95

Friday, August 30, 2013

Friday, August 9, 2013

Cosmodromium on Tumblr

Surprised that the statistics for Cosmodromium still maintain steam in spite of not having posted any new writing for some time. Hoping to remedy this soon. In the meantime I'm kind of reviving a Tumblr account I started some time ago for Cosmodromium. It may make more sense in the future to restrict the "eye candy" posts to Tumblr, as that is what it seems to be designed for, restricting primarily text posts or images with any commentary to this "blogger" account.

Our Tumblr account can be found here: http://cosmodromium.tumblr.com/

Still mostly reposts, but I may get around to hooking up a new scanner soon, then all bets are off.


Friday, August 2, 2013

Anti-Liberal to the Point of Malice

I generally don't succumb to the internet "meme" thing, but I liked this.

Wednesday, July 24, 2013

The Lost Philosopher: The Best of Anthony M. Ludovici

The collected writing of the Edwardian Superman Anthony M. Ludovici. Paperback, $15.00.
Cribbing from wikipedia:

 Anthony Mario Ludovici MBE (8 January 1882 – 3 April 1971) was a British philosopher, sociologist, social critic and polyglot. He is best known as a proponent of aristocracy, and in the early 20th century was a leading British conservative author. He wrote on subjects including art, metaphysics, politics, economics, religion, the differences between the sexes, race and eugenics. Ludovici began his career as an artist, painting and illustrating books. He became private secretary to sculptor Auguste Rodin. Ultimately, he would turn towards writing, with over 40 books as author, and translating over 60 others.

"I have long been an opponent and critic of Christianity, democracy, and anarchy in art and literature. I am particularly opposed to 'Abstract Art,' which I trace to Whistler's heretical doctrines of art and chiefly to his denial that the subject matters, his assimilation of the graphic arts and music, and his insistence on the superior importance of the composition and colour-harmony of a picture, over its representational content."

Now available from Underworld Amusements.

Saturday, June 8, 2013

Knowledge and the Sacred - Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Hamline University 1985.

This lecture of Knowledge and the Sacred was given upon request of Huston Smith when he taught at Hamline University in Minneapolis. Professor Nasr's lecture is based upon his book, Knowledge and the Sacred, which was a compilation of material from his Gifford Lectures.

Peter Dale Scott On the American War Machine

Peter Dale Scott On the American War Machine from Justice Action Media (JAM) on Vimeo.

Although of the "left" and frequently in bad company, aspects of Peter Dale Scott's works are of great interest in what Evola refers to as The Occult War. Understand what Evola actually wrote about this before spinning wool.

Friday, June 7, 2013

The Fighter's Portrait in His Youth (Portretul luptatorului la tinerete)

PM: Thanks for posting the link to: "The Fighter's Portrait in His Youth" there are not too many anticommunist movies out there for some reason.
REPLY: I don't know how it is in Romania but here the movie industry is completely controlled and run by Jews. Most of them profess vague leftist/Marxism while practicing capitalism of the most insidious and destructive order. When you understand their core philosophy is materialism and hypocrisy it makes sense.

Portrait of the Fighter as a Young Man (Romanian: Portretul luptătorului la tinereţe) is a 2010 Romanian drama film directed by Constantin Popescu Jr. It was released at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival.

The film is the first part of a trilogy which describes the fight of anticommunist resistance of Romanians in the 50s. This first movie is centered on the figure of Ion Gavrilă Ogoranu, a member of the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard, played by Constantin Diţă.
Due to its implied antisemitic nature, the film has raised protest from the Elie Wiesel National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania.


Martin van Maele, De Sceleribus et Criminibus (1908).

Monday, May 20, 2013

Libraria with Allegories of Fury and Curiosity 1657-58

Francesco Pianta, The Libraria with Allegories of Fury and Curiosity, wood carved sculptures, 1657-58. Sala Capitolare, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.

Saturday, May 18, 2013

Skull Smashing Culture

Archaeologists working in Europe and the Middle East have recently unearthed evidence of a mysterious Stone Age "skull-smashing" culture, according to New Scientist. Human skulls buried underneath an ancient settlement in Syria were found detached from their bodies with their faces smashed in. Eerily, it appears that the skulls were exhumed and detached from their bodies several years after originally being buried. It was then that they were smashed in and reburied separate from their bodies. According to Juan José Ibañez of the Spanish National Research Council in Barcelona, the finding could suggest that these Stone Age "skull-smashers" believed the living were under some kind of threat from the dead. Perhaps they believed that the only way of protecting themselves was to smash in the corpses' faces, detach their heads and rebury them apart from their bodies. ...many of the 10,000-year-old skulls appear to have been separated from their spines long after their bodies had already begun to decompose. Why would this skull-smashing ritual be performed so long after individuals had died? Did they only pose a threat to the living long after their original burial and death? If it was a ritualistic exercise, it also raises questions about why only select corpses were chosen. All of the smashed skulls were from adult males between the ages of 18 and 30. Furthermore, there was no trace of delicate cutting. It appears that the skulls' faces were simply smashed in using brute force with a stone tool.

An unusual cluster of Stone Age skulls with smashed-in faces has been found carefully separated from the rest of their skeletons. They appear to have been dug up several years after being buried with their bodies, separated, then reburied. Collections of detached skulls have been dug up at many Stone Age sites in Europe and the Near East - but the face-smashing is a new twist that adds further mystery to how these societies related to their dead. Juan José Ibañez at the Spanish National Research Council in Barcelona says the find may suggest that Stone Age cultures believed dead young men were a threat to the world of the living. No one knows why Neolithic societies buried clusters of skulls - often near or underneath settlements. Some think it was a sign of ancestral veneration. "When people started living together [during the Neolithic period], they needed a social cement," says Ibañez. Venerating ancestors might have been a way of doing this. But the violence demonstrated towards the skulls in the latest cluster suggests a different story. The 10,000-year-old skulls were found in Syria. Like those found in other caches, they have been cleanly separated from their spines, suggesting they were collected from dead bodies that had already begun to decompose. Patterns on the bone indicate that some had been decomposing for longer than others, making it likely that they were all gathered together for a specific purpose. Most of the skulls belonged to adult males between 18 and 30 years old. One - belonging to a child - was left intact; one was smashed to pieces; the remaining nine lacked facial bones. "There was a pattern," says Ibañez. "The top of the skull and the jaw were there, but they were missing all of the bones in between." His team believes the facial bones were smashed out with a stone and brute force. "There were no traces of cutting," he says.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

Nature's Colors of Life and Death

"Scavenger birds make food of scraps as camels are slaughtered for market in Manolongo, Kenya, just outside Nairobi. Much of the camel meat will be sold to Somalis in the Eastleigh section of Nairobi, where many of the residents are Somalis who have fled their home country because of instability and insecurity."

Light, Darkness, and Colors

"Using Goethe's Theory of Colours (Zur Farbenlehre) as point of departure, Light Darkness and Colours takes us on a fascinating journey through the universe of colours. In 1704, Sir Isaac Newton published 'Light and Refraction,' his study of the interactions between sunlight and prisms. Newton was, as a good scientist, intent on achieving objectivity, which meant studying sunlight in isolation. He thought colours were contained solely in light, and found the spectrum he was looking for. When he reproduced this experiment, Goethe found another, hidden set of colours missed by Newton. Goethe found the hidden colours in the boundaries between light and darkness. He felt, as an artist, that one could not talk about light without including darkness. Calling it 'the light-darkness polarity', Goethe made this new scientific discovery using artistic methods in conjunction with science."

Monday, May 13, 2013

The Emblematic Hermetic Cross of Manly P. Hall

The Emblematic Hermetic Cross of Manly P. Hall. This cross was designed by Manly P. Hall in the summer of 1923. The cross represents a composite of the emblems and figures of the various Mystery Schools gathered to form one harmonious pattern, thus signifying the unification of all religious and philosophical doctrines into one perfect and beautiful unit- a condition which must first come to pass before the ideals of Universal Brotherhood can be realized. This cross was given to Walter Stewart, who was Manly P. Hall's last ministerial student in the Church of the People, and is currently protected by CIRCES International and the Ordre Souverain du Temple Initiatique on behalf of the Church of the People. An oil painting was made of this cross by Armenian artist Mihran K. Serailian and then made into posters by the Philosophical Research Society in 1962. The cross is made of diamonds, platinum, gold, and enamel.

From: Society of Unknown Philosophers.

An Old Business Card

Found one of my old business cards in a book I hadn't looked at in some time. This is probably from c.1987-88.

P.S. Do not send mail to this Post Office Box. It is no longer valid.

A Few Recent Acquisitions...

Aside from Master of Death which I pulled out to keep with the other Camille books.


Schedel, Hartmann: Liber chronicarum Nürnberg 1493.07.12.


Schedel, Hartmann: Liber chronicarum Nürnberg 1493.07.12.

Monday, March 25, 2013

Hitler in the American Gun Control Debate

Again we see Hitler dragged into the Ameritard sandbox on every issue with mind-numbing predictability, and invariably without any substantial validity.

It particularly amuses me every time someone paraphrases the famous Santayana quote about history repeating itself to make some smarmy allusion to the "holocau$t" or as a warning against "Fascism," because even when person peddling the quote happens to be aware of the source, they are usually ignorant of the fact that Santayana was pro-Mussolini.

Of course in a letter addressed to Corliss Lamont in 1950 he had to add his qualifiers, but Santayana still endorsed Mussolini in the essentials: "Of course I was never a Fascist in the sense of belonging to that Italian party, or to any nationalistic or religious party. But considered, as it is for a naturalist, a product of the generative order of society, a nationalist or religious institution will probably have its good sides, and be better perhaps than the alternative that presents itself at some moment in some place. That is what I thought, and still think, Mussolini’s dictatorship was for Italy in its home government. Compare with the disorderly socialism that preceded or the impotent party chaos that has followed it. . . . But Mussolini was personally a bad man and Italy a half-baked political unit; and the militant foreign policy adopted by Fascism was ruinous in its artificiality and folly. But internally, Italy was until the foreign militancy and mad alliances were adopted, a stronger, happier, and more united country than it is or had ever been. Dictatorships are surgical operations, but some diseases require them, only the surgeon must be an expert, not an adventurer."

Here is a pamphlet from Dr. William Pierce defending Hitler against charges of being anti-gun. Unfortunately this doesn't include the German text and English translation of the Nazi gun laws, the most important part.

Personally I would love to see American liberals and conservatives, Democrats and Republicans, come together. IN FRONT OF A FIRING SQUAD.


Lightning Strikes Volcano

These remarkable photos from the news reminded me of Frieda Harris's painting of Trump XVI for Aleister Crowley's Tarot. In the earlier (Type I) Marseille Tarots, the lightning was emerging from the Tower, blowing off the crown. In the later (Type II) Marseille style Tarots, the lightning strikes the Tower from above. Crowley produced a chaotic amalgam.

Source >

Knife Fighting in Traffic

If you're going to get into a knife fight you might as well do it in traffic.

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

How to Read a Book by Shaykh Hamza Yusuf

Anyone who knows me knows that my most recommended (and handed out as gift) book is HOW TO READ A BOOK by Adler and VanDoren. This is an excellent long 2-part lecture series on the book by Islamic scholar Shaykh Hamza Yusuf. If you are interested in this material but dismiss this because the lecturer is Muslim; consider yourself mentally handicapped.


Monday, January 28, 2013

Bog Person c.100 AD (Photo 1873)

Photograph from 1873 of a body preserved in a bog. The body had been found in 1871 in the Heidmoor near de:Rendswühren and is now on display at Gottorf Castle, Schleswig Germany. Dated around 1st or 2nd century AD

Thursday, January 24, 2013

The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustration


Le Vaisseau du Grand Oeuvre by Julien Champagne (1910)

Julien Champagne's most famous painting, Le Vaisseau du Grand Oeuvre (Vessel of the Great Work), was completed in the year 1910. The painting was a great favorite among the Parisian occultists during the first third of the 20th Century. The voluptuous model for the painting was purported to be the young female alchemist, Louise Barbe (ca. 1879-1919); she was the wife of the infamous Russian "monkey gland" surgeon, Serge Voronoff (1866-1951). Louise was a member of the occult circle which gathered at the salon of the de Lesseps family (children of the great Ferdinand de Lesseps) in Paris. Of course, the "Great Work" is Alchemy, and the painting is filled with alchemical symbolism. The nude female figure is a personification of the philosopher's stone; she stands within a glass flask and is surrounded by myriad blazing flames. Off the right shoulder of the young woman is the word "POTERE" meaning "power" in English; off of her left shoulder is the word "AVDERE" meaning "to dare" in English. The background on the left and right sides of the flask contain the names of certain philosophers and alchemists written in Latin letters. The names on the left side are as follows: Artephius, Albert le Grand, Synesius, Th. d'Aquin, R. Lulle, Flamel, Rhazes, and Geber. The names on the right side are as follows: Roger Bacon, A. de Villeneuve, Basile Valentin, Van Helmont, Paracelse, Philalethe, Trevisan, and Ripley. In the darkened sky behind the female figure are depictions of the Moon and four planets that are visible to the naked eye: above her right shoulder are Saturn and Jupiter; on her lower right side is a crescent Venus (Morning Star); above her left shoulder is a crescent Moon; and to her lower left is the planet Mars. On her forehead the woman wears a sparkling diamond of the Queen of Heaven, Isis, the Goddess of magic and the occult arts. The diamond represents the "Great Eye," which Isis is purported to have stolen from Ra, the supreme God of Pharaonic Egypt. Eugène Canseliet used a representation of this painting as the frontispiece in the 1979 reprint of his book entitled Deux logis alchimiques, en marge de la science et de l'histoire (originally published in 1945).

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

RE/Search: Effete West Coast Counterculture non-Nostalgia

I first read RE/Search "Industrial Culture Handbook" when the slick version came out in the mid-late 1980's. I was already familiar with most of the artists in it from "The Some Bizarre Show" which originally aired on NIGHT FLIGHT in the early 1980's as a replacement for "New Wave Theater" after the host Peter Ivers was murdered. The aesthetics of "Industrial Culture Handbook" were and are interesting. But then you read the interviews and realize the "artists" are just another predictable subspecies of vapid counterculture posers and faggots (re "vapid counterculture posers and faggots" see diagram of Boyd Rice and Genesis P-Orridge.), essentially a "Who's Who" of people who buy books for the titles to impress their friends.

I recall being briefly amused by Boyd Rice after reading RE/Search "Pranks" and "Incredibly Strange Films" in the 1980's, until I saw him interviewed (re "Pranks") around the same time and realized what a mind-numbingly boring blowhard he is. In all honesty I never listened to any of his audio material aside from the "People" song which is as mildly amusing and as easily forgettable as anything from the Dr. Demento show. His post-CoS spiel reminded me of a sad coffehouse impersonation of Gloria Swanson in Sunset Boulevard, only less interesting.


Sunday, January 20, 2013

The Game of Kings: Medieval Ivory Chessmen from the Isle of Lewis

Highlights from My Bible Collection

It may amuse or entertain some COSMODROMIUM readers to learn that I have a fairly extensive collection of interesting and rare Bibles. Here are a few recent acquisitions.

1. Geneva Bible, London, 1589:

2. Book of Common Prayer & Holy Bible, 1715.

3. New Testament. 2 vols. London, 1722.

4. Oxford University Printers Bible, 1706.

 5. Small leather bible. 1649.

More later....